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Imogen Austen Wishart

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Birth order expert and parenting educator, Michael Grose, discusses the role a child’s position in the family has on personality traits and life experiences, in the newest edition of Why First-Borns Rule the World and Later -Borns Want to Change it.

 

First-borns are the ‘family conservatives,’ according to Grose. They tend to be the spokesperson for the family, commonly following in the footsteps of their parents, and hold a regal-like position.

In a family of three or more siblings, second-borns are the charismatic ones, says Grose, as they position themselves within rules set out by first-borns makes them easy-going. While, the youngest tend to challenge the rules and are the risk-takers out of the three types.

First published in 2003 by Penguin Random House, and now 18 years later, Grose’s updated edition of his book incorporates a change in family structure.

The theory is still the same but the context is quite different,” he says.

Grose is an expert in his field and helps counsel families through the lens of birth order. His book delves into the human psychology of the theory, analysing and explaining how and why it affects the way children, and consequently adults, behave.

Families are now more consistently having two siblings, rather than three or more, causing second-borns to have characteristics of last-borns.

This change in number of children per family, according to Grose, is known as a “micro-family”.

Gender, special needs or disability, the time spaced between births, twins or a death in the family can have an influence on the traits produced by birth order. As Grose states, these challenges or differences create “family constellations” rather than a numbered sequence which determines their characteristics.

Although “micro-families” are more consistent to today’s type of household, Grose’s definitions of birth order traits are the same as they were in 2003 and are mostly separated into three main categories: first-borns, second or middle-borns and last-borns.

First-borns tend to have traits such as:

• Goal/achievement orientated
• Conscientious
• Detail orientated
• Easier to raise/like to please/play by the rules
• Get things done
• Low risk-taker (stick to the things they are good at)
• Tendency for perfectionism
• Anxious/ tendency for neuroticism
• Rule makers/rule keepers/like routines
• Black and white in their thinking

Only children have personalities resembling first-borns, Grose adds.

Only children, but especially girls, can be extremely verbal but struggle with conflict resolution and conflict in general, he continues. Make sure they spend lots of time around kids their age and raise pets, as they need way to learn to get along with others, Grose clarifies.

Second-borns/middle children tend to have traits such as:

Conflict resolution skills
• People Pleaser
• Resilient
• Competitive and always feel they must compete for parental attention
• Peacemaker/Mediators/Negotiators
• Most likely to upset/aggravate other siblings
• Flexible/ fitting in with the rules set by the first born still whilst exhibiting abilities different to the first-borns
• Sometimes get lost or forgotten by parents resulting in them feeling forgotten or left out

Last-borns tend to have traits such as:

Street-smart
• Low conflict resolution skills, expects others to make decisions or take responsibility
• Charming and outgoing
• Can be quicker developing to catch up with older siblings
• Manipulative to get what they want
• Feels inferior, others seem superior
Entrepreneurs
• Can be even more successful but also different from the older siblings
• Do not mind taking risks

If there are only two siblings in a family, i.e. “micro families,” middle-borns and last-borns merge traits becoming later-borns, with characteristics from the two types combined.

Gross couples “micro-families” and the blended later-borns with what he calls the “Prince Harry effect”.

Using the example of the United Kingdom’s Princes, William and Harry. William as the first born, is a “real-keeper,” he says.

Gross continues to define Prince William as someone who follows first-born characteristics such as being conservative and respecting the rules and marrying the “right person.”

In contrast, “Harry is the spare,” Gross says. Prince Harry has last-born characteristics as well as some second born ones. He challenges the rules and expresses his independence, Gross shares.

Although first-borns have leadership traits and are responsible, these traits should not be taken out of their context by saying all first-borns become leaders, Grose says.

Later-borns can be leaders too, but the way they lead, he argues, changes depending on their birth order. Examples of leaders and their order of birth:
First born: Joe Biden
Second-born/Later-borns: Scott Morrison and Jacinta Ardern
Last-born: Donald Trump

Grose recommends pulling back pressure on first-borns and to push more on last-born children.

He asserts that first-borns have a higher risk of mental health issues than later-borns, due to being high achievers, which is a common first-born personality trait.

However, Grose does warn that not everything follows trends, there are always external factors to take into consideration for different behaviours. Nevertheless, understanding birth order helps parents’ parent their children.

In adult relationships, Grose says “opposites attract”, with the best combinations being first-borns and last-borns. He also suggests that parents tend to parent in relation to their own personal sibling position.

For example, later-borns or last-borns, as parents, are inclined to be more relaxed and less about rules, whereas first born parents take the role very seriously.

Grose, father of three and a last-born, began his career as a primary teacher, with 15 years of teaching experience he moved into parenting education by completing a Master of Educational Studies at Monash University.

He is now one of Australia’s leading speakers and educators, as well as a best-selling author, including his latest edition on birth-order theory.

He advocates the importance for teachers and parents to learn their students’ or child’s behaviour through the eyes of birth order, to establish better understanding of the individual and their needs.

The adoption process is not easy, but for some parents adoption it is their last chance at a family.

After 10 years of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) treatments, plus two and a half years of waiting in the adoption program, hairdresser Pina and her husband John were finally able to have that chance.

The Melbourne couple, are one of the lucky sets of parents who were able to adopt a baby boy 20 years ago. Both had wanted children since their mid to late-twenties and after exhausting all their options to have their own biological child, they turned to adoption.

The 10 years of IVF treatments had taken their toll on Pina physically and mentally, seeing her future continuously taken away from her, made her feel like the adoption process would be just another form of torture and in some respects it was.

Still, she felt she had nothing to lose and if IVF had taught her anything, it was that she was willing to risk it. Thankfully, luck was on her side and after 13 years of waiting, Pina and John welcomed a baby boy into their family.

Pina explains how the IVF treatments hurt her. “We kept making beautiful embryos, through IVF,” Pina shares.

“For whatever reason, they never stuck to me. However, I think there is a reason in life, why things happen – I was meant to have Damien.”

IVF is an intrusive procedure that has a success rate per fresh embryo transfer of 38.8% for live birth and 44.9% for clinical pregnancy (ages 18-34) and 32.2% (live birth), 41.7% (clinical pregnancy) for ages 35-38, ages greater than 38 it drops even further.

“They kept saying to me that there is absolutely nothing wrong, my husband had the low sperm count that’s the reason we went on it. As the woman, I had to go through a lot,” Pina recalls.

I was at the point where I thought, I’m not meant to have kids and that’s it, end of story.” It was then, Pina’s husband, John mentioned adoption.

Although adoption seems like a great back-up plan for a family, in reality, it’s a very complex system with the average wait time being between five and seven, if one passes the qualifying stages. Between 2018-2019 there was a total of 310 adoptions Australia wide, 82% were Australian born children and 67% of the 310 adoptions were from their foster parents.

With the increase in women’s rights and family planning and the resulting drop of children in the adoption system, means there are more parents waiting to adopt than there are children needing to be adopted.

Australia’s adoption policies differ depending on the States. In Victoria there are three kinds of adoption systems: local adoption, inter-country adoption and permanent care.

There are also only 13 partner countries with Australia for adopting children, each having independent rules and regulations which can restrict options. Factors such as being married, single, male or female, in a de-facto relationship, one’s age, gender orientation and sexuality can all affect one’s chances of adoption.

The local adoption requirements are less strict, for example a persons’ orientation or relationship status does not matter but there is a demanding application process which examines a person’s life in minute detail.

The biological parents learn everything about the adopting parents as well has gaining many rights, one of which is the right to visitation.

Even though we would be adopting their children, they still get to see them,” Pina says.

Pina didn’t have a problem with this requirement because she believes it’s important for a child, any person for that matter, to know their heritage to better understand oneself.

To be qualified and placed in the adoption program would take two years for Pina and John. As Pina says, “They wanted to get to know us better than we knew ourselves.”

Answering endless questions fuelled a gruelling and extensive qualification process. It was also yet another period of trying not to get their hopes up in fear of disappointment.

The final step, after 2.5 years of the application process, was an intimidating interview with a panel of lawyers, doctors, psychologists and Department of Human Services (DHS) staff.

Pina says she thought they were successful because of her view of it not mattering to her who or where the child was from, to her a child was a child and if she could supply the home then she would gladly do it.

Two months later, they got the call that they were to be the parents of a 4.5-month-old baby boy, whom they named Damien.

The first time I lay eyes on him, I just thought he was the most beautiful little baby ever,” Pina recalls.

However, their adoption story did not end there, it has always been in the background through Damien’s childhood, adolescence and even into adulthood.

Damien has known he was adopted from an early age. Pina took the approach to start filling him in as soon as he could understand.

Pina strongly wanted Damien never to question where he belonged, she made sure he knew he was a part of this family and nothing could change it.

I told him little bits and pieces and as he got older,” Pina says.

“He knows that he has biological siblings, and yes that was a bit hard, I did not know how he would take it. I suppose growing up he knew nothing other than us; we are his parents- this is his family. He never really questioned it and had no interest in meeting her (his biological mother) or his siblings.”

Although Damien never questioned who he was and where he belonged it was still difficult to understand why his biological mother gave him up, especially when she had children already.

Even though Damien’s biological mother hardly used the visitation rights, as she wanted a clean break, she has been in contact with Damien over the past 20 years.

In some ways it was more detrimental than good for Damien. Each time would raise his expectations, to have some sort of relationship and understanding, only to be rejected all over again.

Damien does not know who his biological father is, although he knows it is where he gets his aboriginal heritage. While having no information on the biological father has been challenging in having real access to the Australian Indigenous community for Damien, both Pina and John made sure he was in touch with his cultural heritage.

“Adoption is a gamble. Any child is a gamble. Whether you adopt or whether you have one biologically. They can grow up to be the best, they can grow up to be the worst they can grow up to be anything,” Pina explains.

It has nothing to do with whether you gave birth or not. In the end it’s all the same.”

Adoption and its process are not for the feint hearted but if fate is on side it’s the best chance at having a family.

Choices in Names change, shifting in and out of fashion and some stay constant.

There is a new movement for gender neutral names as parents see the benefits of naming their child without the gender attached.

Only 6% of names are gender neutral and according to names.org, who put the parameters to what makes a name gender neutral, when they dip below 95% of the social bureau’s data/statistics then it becomes gender neutral.

For instance, the name Leslie in 2016 dropped to 94.6% for the females it was given t and was thus consider gender neutral because it was below 95%.

2021 Gender-neutral baby names:

  1. Indigo
  2. Ash
  3. Darcy
    • Irish Origin, meaning dark
  4. Avalon
    • Celtic origin, meaning island of apples
  5. Echo
    • Greek origin, meaning reverberating sound
  • Billie
    • English origin, meaning resolute protection
  • Zephyr
  • Quinn
    • Celtic origin, meaning chief leader/intelligence
  • Kai
    • Welsh/German origin, meaning of the sea/keeper of the keys
  • Blake
    • English origin, meaning dark and attractive

Over the past 100 years the boy’s name, ‘James’ was given to over 4.5 million boys, whilst the girl’s name ‘Mary’ has been given to almost 3.5 million girls. Although they are staples in our supply for names their popularity has changed over the years.

Names from television and popular culture impact parents’ choices. Khaleesi or Arya were very popular names form the tremendously successful TV series Game of Thrones; 241 baby girls were named Khaleesi in 2012-2013 (when the series was at its peak) but is now ranked number 733 in the US.

2021 popular girl names:

  1. Charlotte
  2. Amelia
    • Latin origin, meaning work
  3. Olivia
  4. Isla
    • Scottish origin, meaning island
  5. Mia
    • Scandinavian origin, meaning beloved
  6. Ava
    • Hebrew origin, meanings life/serpent/bird
  7. Grace
    • Latin origin, meaning grace of God/charm
  8. Chloe
    • Greek origin, meaning young green shoot
  9. Willow
  10. Matilda
    • German origin, meaning battle mighty

Things to remember when choosing:

There will most likely be push back if parents float the name around family and friends. But this generally changes after the baby comes along with its new wonderful name.

Most name associations fade. If you love the name stick with it, don’t let who you know or pop-culture changing its connotations be bothersome.

2021 popular boy names:

  1. Oliver
  2. Noah
    • Hebrew origin, meaning rest, comfort and repose
  3. William
  4. Jack
    • English origin, meaning God is gracious (can be considered gender neutral)
  5. Leo
  6. Henry
    • German origin, meaning ruler of the home
  7. Charlie
    • German origin, meaning free man
  8. Thomas
    • Hebrew origin, meaning twin (biblical connections)
  9. Lucas
    • Latin origin, meaning bringer of light
  10. Elijah

 

Helpful hints of choosing a baby name:

Avoid passing trends; consider whether the future child could be teased for their name, and if the name will still sound great in ten years time.

Look into the family tree for inspiration.

There’s something special about a name in the family being used as if it respects and holds significance for the family.

Look up meanings: does this name inspire and not mean something that could be taken in the wrong way?

 

 

Different types of ingredients need to be considered when tackling skin concerns such as, dry, ageing or mature, oily, acne prone and dull skin.

Being mindful of what is both good for your skin and

what is bad will determine the right product for you.

For example, alcohol in some products can dry out the skin and although collagen is crucial in the ageing process when naturally produced by the body, applied topically, it hardly does anything for anti-ageing, at best it aids in hydration. Rather, what you need is an ingredient that aids in collagen production such as, Retinol or Rosehip oil.

Selecting a skin care product based on its ingredients is a crucial step to aid in the health of one’s skin.

Skincare ingredients to look for:

1. Hyaluronic acid (applied topically)

Suitable for:
  •  All to dry skin types
  • Sensitive and oily skin
  •  The perfect allrounder
Benefits:
  • Hydration
  •  Promotes healthier supple skin, reduces the appearance of wrinkles, redness, dermatitis
  • Has a key role in wound healing due to its antibacterial properties
Tips:
  • Apply after toner and serums
  • Apply with already damp skin so that it retains moisture
  • Hyaluronic acid will not work to its best ability if the face is not damp

2. Rosehip oil (applied topically)

Suitable for:
  • Dry skin
  • Mature skin
Benefits:
  • Boosts naturally occurring collagen to create skin elasticity and firmness
  • Hydrates with the help of fatty acids (linoleic) which strengthen the cell walls of the skin and supports retain water

 A dry not greasy oil, that easily absorbs into the skin

  • Helps reduce scars and fine lines, hyperpigmentation, sun exposure and hormonal changes
  •  High percentages or vitamins A and C (benefits for these shown below)
  •  Boosts naturally occurring collagen levels to help increase skin elasticity and firmness
  •  Full of antioxidants and antibacterial properties (phenols)

Tips:
  • Make sure to keep it out of sunlight and warmer temperatures
  •  Use as the last step of a skincare routine, before bed
  •  If your foundation is to dry often one to two drops of Rosehip oil gives a youthful glow without greasiness, preventing the skin becoming dehydrated from the makeup
Fun fact:

Derived from Rosa Canina – a rose bush from Chile.  It is different from rose oil which comes from rose petals and derives from the pressed fruit and seeds of the plant (Rosa Canina).

3. Caffeine (applied topically)

Suitable for:
  • Red, puffy, and sensitive skin
  • Dark under eye circles
  •  Mature skin
Benefits:
  • Calming (opposite to drinking coffee)
  • Reduces the appearance of dark under eye circles
  • Rich in antioxidants
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Helps reduce the appearance of sunspots and appearance of fine lines
Tips:
  • Keep cool and store in a darkly lit space
Fun Fact:

Coffee grounds can be used as a skin exfoliator or mixed with a little olive oil – an exfoliating mask.

4. Zinc (applied topically)

Suitable for:
  • Acne prone skin types
Benefits:
  •  Helps clear acne-causing bacteria from skin
  • Helps reduce oil production
  • Reduces acne and acne scaring
  • Anti-inflammatory properties helping reduce redness and irritation
  • Can be used to aid other skin conditions such as melasma, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis and eczema
Tips:
  • Spot test first
  •  Use as a serum for best results

5. Vitamin C (applied topically)

Suitable for:
  • Sun damage
  • Mature skin
  • Dull skin
  • Hyperpigmentation
Benefits:
  • Reduces wrinkles
  • Helps protect against sun damage
  • Reduces hyperpigmentation
  • Evens out skin tone
  • Brightening
  • Aids in the healing of wounds
  • Creates a barrier against pollution
Tips:

  • Use both morning and night and for best results, after toner and before moisturiser

Do not combine Vitamin C and Retinol (Vitamin A) as it can reduce the other’s effects/neutralise each other

  •  Vitamin C can be found in face wash/cleansers, moisturisers, sunscreen even some powders, if you are the type of person who has no time for an elaborate routine try and use it in combination with something else

 The dryer the skin, the lower the percentage of vitamin C should be used, to solve this dilute in moisturiser

  • If the serum or product starts to change colour (oxidising) throw it away
Fun fact:

Once applied Vitamin C cannot be easily wiped or washed off thus, missing applications will not be too detrimental to overall result. It also works in combination with SPF (not as a replacement) to boost skins protection against the sun.

6. Vitamin A/Retinol  (applied topically)

Suitable for:
  • Mature skin
Benefits:
  • Stimulates the production of new skin cells (creatingnew skin)
  • Can help production of collagen
  • Speeds up the skin turnover process which in turns reduces the signs of wrinkles, dark spots, fine lines and acne
  • Promotes a radiant glow
Tips:
  • Well known for causing irritation at the beginning of use, it is advised to spot test and apply with care(symptom such as, dryness, itchiness, redness and increased sensitivity can occur)

When eased into softly (I.e applied less frequently increasing gradually, less irritation is likely to occur

  • If the above symptoms persist an alternative method would be retinal also called reinaldehyde or bakuchiol which appear to cause less irritation than retinol
Fun fact:

Vitamin A and Retinol are the same thing and has the best scientific evidence of anti-ageing.

Final Notes

Anti-ageing products are often left to too late, from early twenties onwards an anti-ageing ingredient should be implemented into the skincare regime as a form of prevention rather than used to fix the problem.

For oily skin types, it is still necessary to hydrate it. Often the production of excess oil is due to the skin trying to rehydrate itself, thus helping this process should slow down the production of oil. Sometimes choosing products that stop oil adds to the problem, it is better to choose something lightweight and hydrating. However if symptoms are excessive its advised to see a health professional.